sábado, 25 de octubre de 2014

Shining Light on Violence Against Women | Office on Women's Health Blog

Shining Light on Violence Against Women | Office on Women's Health Blog

Womens Health logo

Shining Light on Violence Against Women




Ed. note: This blog post is cross-posted from HuffingtonPost.com. The original post date was October 23, 2014. Read the original post.
Content warning: Abuse (physical, emotional, sexual), rape, sexual assault
“Sunlight is said to be the best of disinfectants.” —Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis, 1914
Dr. Nancy LeeDomestic violence has been in the news a lot lately. Intimate partner violence (also known as IPV or domestic violence) is not new, but it is widespread. New research from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shows how staggering the problem is: over 38 million women in the United States experience violence at the hand of a husband, boyfriend, or other partner during their lifetime. But what many people don’t know is that the number declined significantly in the last 20 years, in part because of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA).
Prior to VAWA, in many states physical and sexual violence against a woman by someone she knew was not considered as serious a crime as was an attack by a stranger. Thinking about it now, it’s hard to believe.
Woman holding her head, being comforted.VAWA was a major national recognition of the severity of partner violence against women and the need for change. Renewed last year, the law provides funding for criminal investigation, prosecution, and harsher penalties for abusers. It also supports programs and services such as the National Domestic Violence Hotline, rape crisis centers, violence prevention programs, legal aid for survivors, and protections for traditionally underserved populations such as Native Americans, undocumented individuals, women with disabilities, and lesbian, bisexual, and transgender women.
VAWA has had a big impact — IPV declined by 67% between 1993 and 2010, due in part to changes like these:
  • All 50 states have updated their laws so that rape is now subject to the same punishment whether or not the victim knows the perpetrator.
  • Police, prosecutors, and judges now receive training on handling IPV cases.
  • If police officers have reason to suspect IPV, they may now arrest someone for committing the crime without an arrest warrant.
  • Victims no longer have to pay for their own rape exams or to have a protection order (also called a restraining order) served to their abuser.
Perhaps the most important change to come from VAWA was the acknowledgment that domestic violence exists. Historically, we avoided the topic, preferring to think of it as a “private” or “family” issue that happens only to other people, when it actually affects people of all ages, races, ethnicities, and educational and socioeconomic backgrounds. The more we talk openly about the reality of domestic violence — the more we let sunlight shine on this issue — the more progress we can make.

Further reading on violence against women

At a recent event celebrating the 20th anniversary of VAWA, Vice President Biden (the original author of the law) voiced a goal that I believe is necessary and attainable: “We are not going to succeed until America embraces the notion… that under no circumstance does a man ever have a right to raise a hand to a woman other than in self-defense.” In order to reach this goal, we must start with open, honest discussion about the painful problem of domestic violence. Not only is this discussion good for society, it can help women caught in violent relationships and the children that live in these abusive homes. When we talk openly about the many forms abuse can take and deem these actions wrong and criminal, we help others identify abuse in their lives and show them a path to change.
How can you help? Start a dialogue. Share this simple, easy-to-readinfographic with friends and family and post it on your social networks in whatever way feels right for you. Don’t be surprised if your doctor asks questions about your relationships and home life.IPV screening is covered under all Marketplace and most other health coverage plans, at no additional cost. And don’t forget the girls in your life; at least 1 in 10 teens experience physical violence in their relationships. Talk to them abouthealthy relationshipsabuse, and what they should do if someone hurts them.
If we open up this problem to the sunlight, we can make a difference for millions of women.

The Obama Administration's Response to Ebola | The White House

The Obama Administration's Response to Ebola | The White House



In this week's address, the President discussed the measures we are taking to respond to Ebola cases at home, while containing the epidemic at its source in West Africa. This week, we continued to focus on domestic preparedness, with the creation of new CDC guidelines and the announcement of new travel measures ensuring all travelers from the three affected countries are directed to and screened at one of five airports.
The President emphasized that it's important to follow the facts, rather than fear, as New Yorkers did yesterday when they stuck to their daily routine. Ebola is not an easily transmitted disease, and America is leading the world in the fight to stamp it out in West Africa.
Watch: President Obama delivers the weekly address.

NCTR Quarter Page: July-Sept 2014 ► Vol. 10, Issue 1: Jul-Sept 2014

NCTR Logo

Vol. 10, Issue 1:  Jul-Sept 2014



Anil Patri

NCTR Welcomes New Director of Jefferson Labs NanoCore

Anil K. Patri, Ph.D., joined NCTR as the Director of FDA’s Jefferson Labs Nanotechnology Core Facility (NanoCore) in August, 2014. Dr. Patri brings to the FDA a wealth of experience and knowledge in nanomaterial manufacture, characterization, detection in complex matrices (e.g. cells), and behavior in biological matrices. Prior to coming to NCTR, Dr. Patri served as the Deputy Director of the National Cancer Institute’s Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCI/NCL) in Frederick, MD. The mission of NCI/NCL is to conduct the preclinical characterization of nanomaterials destined to be submitted to FDA as cancer chemotherapeutics.Under his guidance, the NCI/NCL developed a nanomaterial characterization cascade, specific methodologies, and standards in collaboration with other government partners.
The combination of his 10-year experience at NCI/NCL together with his knowledge of nanomaterial manufacturing, characterization, and toxicity uniquely qualifies Dr. Patri for this position to lead the Jefferson Labs Nanocore. NCTR is very pleased to have Dr. Patri on board and is excited to draw on Dr. Patri’s experience to accomplish FDA goals.  

human degestive system

Effect of Silver Nano-particles on the Gut Microbes and Intestinal Immune Responses

NCTR scientists have shown that silver nanoparticles, administered by oral gavage, caused size- and dose-dependent changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota and the gut-associated immune response of rats; with smaller nanoparticles demonstrating the greatest antimicrobial capability. Silver nanoparticles are widely used in the food and health care industry due to their antimicrobial properties. However, the effects of oral ingestion of nanosilver are largely unknown. This study suggests that the microbiome may need to be considered in the safety evaluation of nanotechnology-derived products. This would be added to traditional metabolism, toxicity, and tissue-deposition information currently used in toxicology risk assessments. This study, which is part of a National Toxicology Program 13-week study, is currently published online atNanotoxicology.

resource book

View NCTR's Recent Scientific Publications

.-.

View the NCTR 2014-2017 Strategic Plan


An Empirical Method for Predicting Toxicity?

Scientists from NCTR and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research developed a novel toxicity modeling approach utilizing 3D NMR-distance based descriptors to identify unique structural alerts (toxicophores) associated with phospholipidosis (PLD). PLD is a common side effect of many drug classes; however, there is a lack of understanding of its molecular mechanism. The 3D-SDAR PLD classification model was based on a training dataset of 328 compounds with publicly available information and was validated on external (proprietary FDA dataset of 294 drugs) and hold-out test sets (20% of training). The classification accuracy for the external test set was 70%. This in silico modeling approach could be utilized to predict which new compounds have a potential to induce PLD. The approach could also be adapted as a general-purpose tool to discover structural alerts for other drug side effects and to design new and safer drugs. A manuscript describing the method isavailable online at Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry.
    

FASEB Logo

NCTR Scientists Win Video Award

Two NCTR scientists, Trisha Eustaquio, Ph.D. and Angel M. Paredes, Ph.D. were the recipients of one of two video awards from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. This video shows an animation of 3D mitochondria data in a healthy neuron from a rat brain collected using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). First, the SBF-SEM scans are displayed, which are then computed to identify the cell surface (green), mitochondria (each shown in a different color), and nucleus (semi-transparent purple). In a healthy cell, the mitochondria are often elongated, reaching out to network with other mitochondria to optimize energy output, as seen in this video. 
The ten images and two videos that received awards demonstrate the breadth of ongoing research in the biomedical and life sciences. Winning entries were unveiled on FASEB’s website and will be exhibited at the National Institutes of Health.
.-.

NCTR Welcomes New Director, Systems Biology Division

William Mattes
William B. Mattes, Ph.D., DABT, joined NCTR as the Director, Division of Systems Biology on July 28. In his new position, Dr. Mattes will provide leadership, managerial oversight, and direction for research-related activities within the division. Dr. Mattes received his Ph.D. in Biological Chemistry from the University of Michigan and has over twenty years of experience in chemical and drug development. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology with extensive professional experience as a research toxicologist and most recently served as Founder and Principal at PharmPoint Consulting. He was responsible for services supporting safety-issue resolution, technology application, consortium development, biomarker implementation and regulatory relevance, divergent data analysis, and preclinical drug development. Prior to his consulting work, he was the first Director of the Predictive Safety Testing Consortium of the Critical Path Institute where he organized a large consortium of pharmaceutical companies and led the initiative that resulted in CDER's first qualification of predictive biomarkers through their Biomarker Qualification Program. Dr. Mattes was selected to establish and lead a worldwide Center for Excellence in Toxicogenomics and he also led the Database Development team for the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Toxicogenomics Committee. Subsequently, Dr. Mattes' unique accomplishments in leading national and international collaborative teams makes him ideally suited to direct and coordinate research activities within NCTR and across FDA.

2014 Global Summit logo
On August 21-22, 2014, the Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS14) with the theme of “Regulatory Genomics and Beyond” was hosted by FDA and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency in Montreal, Canada. The summit included speaker sessions to explore the applications and regulatory aspects of genomics. The international conference provided an opportunity for scientists from government, industry, and academia from 15 countries to discuss innovative technologies and partnerships to enhance translation of basic science into regulatory applications within the global context. Prior to the summit, the Executive Committee of the Global Coalition for Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) representing many government regulatory agencies from 9 different countries or regions were briefed on progress from the Bioinformatics, Exposome, Nanotoxicology, and Emerging Technologies Working Groups; and discussed future GCRSR goals for training and collaborative research, and options for the GSRS15 which will be held in Parma, Italy on October 12-13, 2015.

Exploration of liver cancer genomes : Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology : Nature Publishing Group

Exploration of liver cancer genomes : Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology : Nature Publishing Group



Exploration of liver cancer genomes

Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology
 
11,
 
340–349
 
doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2014.6
Published online
 

Abstract

Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled the examination of liver cancer genomes at high resolution; somatic mutations, structural alterations, HBV integration, RNA editing and retrotransposon changes have been comprehensively identified. Furthermore, integrated analyses of trans-omics data (genome, transcriptome and methylome data) have identified multiple critical genes and pathways implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis. These analyses have uncovered potential therapeutic targets, including growth factor signalling, WNT signalling, the NFE2L2-mediated oxidative pathway and chromatin modifying factors, and paved the way for new molecular classifications for clinical application. The aetiological factors associated with liver cancer are well understood; however, their effects on the accumulation of somatic changes and the influence of ethnic variation in risk factors still remain unknown. The international collaborations of cancer genome sequencing projects are expected to contribute to an improved understanding of risk evaluation, diagnosis and therapy for this cancer.

Human Genome Sequencing: Clinical Applications

Genomics|Update|Current

Genomics & Health Impact Update

Human Genome Sequencing: Clinical Applications

sequencing
Molecular findings among patients referred for clinical whole-exome sequencingExternal Web Site Icon  
Yaping Yang, PhD1; et al. JAMA October 18, 2014
Selected articles from Nature special web collections
Next-generation sequencing in the clinic.External Web Site Icon 
Jason Y Park, Larry J Kricka & Paolo Fortina Nature Biotechnology 31, 990-992 (2013)
Genomic testing reaches into the womb.External Web Site Icon 
Malorye Allison. Nature Biotechnology 31, 595-601 (2013)
Next-generation sequencing for research and diagnostics in kidney diseaseExternal Web Site Icon
Kirsten Y. Renkema, et al. Nature Reviews Nephrology 10, 433-444 (2014)
Exploration of liver cancer genomes.External Web Site Icon 
Tatsuhiro Shibata & Hiroyuki Aburatani. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 11, 340-349 (2014)
Molecular genetic testing and the future of clinical genomicsExternal Web Site Icon
Sara Huston Katsanis & Nicholas Katsanis. Nature Reviews Genetics 14, 415-426 (2013)
The expanding scope of DNA sequencing.External Web Site Icon
Jay Shendure & Erez Lieberman Aiden Nature Biotechnology 30, 1084-1094 (2012)
Pharmacogenomics in clinical practice and drug developmentExternal Web Site Icon
Andrew R Harper & Eric J Topol. Nature Biotechnology 30, 1117-1124 (2012)
Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing in neurological diseasesExternal Web Site Icon
Jia-Nee Foo, Jian-Jun Liu & Eng-King Tan. Nature Reviews Neurology 8, 508-517 (2012)
Implementing personalized cancer genomics in clinical trialsExternal Web Site Icon
Richard Simon & Sameek Roychowdhury. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 12, 358-369 (2013)
Disease-targeted sequencing: a cornerstone in the clinicExternal Web Site Icon
Heidi L. Rehm. Nature Reviews Genetics 14, 295-300 (2013)
Next-generation sequencing in the clinic: are we ready?External Web Site Icon
Leslie G. Biesecker, et al. Nature Reviews Genetics 13, 818-824 (2012)
CDC Commentary: The arrival of genomic medicine to the clinic is only the beginning of the journeyExternal Web Site Icon
James P. Evans & Muin J. Khoury. Genetics in Medicine 15, 268-269 

Next-generation sequencing in the clinic : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group

FULL-TEXT ►

Next-generation sequencing in the clinic : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group



Next-generation sequencing in the clinic

Nature Biotechnology
 
31,
 
990–992
 
 
doi:10.1038/nbt.2743
Published online
 
Pools of cell lines carrying a variety of known mutations are used to validate the performance of a cancer diagnostic test based on next-generation sequencing.
As next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumor cells becomes more sophisticated, it is likely to inform all aspects of cancer management, from diagnostic testing to treatment and drug discovery. In this issue, Frampton et al.1 describe a comprehensive NGS assay applicable to clinical samples that identifies single-base substitutions, copy-number variations and focal amplifications in 287 cancer-related genes, fusion events involving 19 frequently rearranged genes and 3,549 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in other locations throughout the genome—all within a single sequencing run. Validating the analytic performance of such a test is challenging because it assays so many nucleotide positions in the genome (~1.5 Mb in total). The authors therefore use 53 cell lines to create reference materials for assessing the sensitivity and specificity of variant detection. Finally, they apply their test to >2,000 clinical cases. The overall approach of the study—including assay design, creation of reference materials and validation—serves as a model for the development of future clinical NGS tests.

The arrival of genomic medicine to the clinic is only the beginning of the journey : Genetics in Medicine : Nature Publishing Group

FULL-TEXT ►

The arrival of genomic medicine to the clinic is only the beginning of the journey : Genetics in Medicine : Nature Publishing Group



The arrival of genomic medicine to the clinic is only the beginning of the journey

Genetics in Medicine
 
(2013)
 
15,
 
268–269
 
doi:10.1038/gim.2012.133
Received
 
Accepted
 
Published online 
This month we are delighted to feature an important article titled “Implementing Genomic Medicine in the Clinic: The Future is Here.”1 In this article, Teri Manolio and a veritable Who’s Who of genomic medicine nicely articulate the near-term promise of genomic medicine and lay out a number of current efforts being pursued at leading institutions, all designed to implement genomics in patient care. The authors detail many of the challenges to using genomics in clinical care and highlight four specific applications of genomics: tumor-based screening, family history–directed decision support, pharmacogenomics (PGx), and diagnostic genome sequencing to “demonstrate that genomic medicine is no longer on the threshold; it has arrived.”