domingo, 19 de abril de 2015

Press Announcements > FDA warns consumers not to use muscle growth product called Tri-Methyl Xtreme

Press Announcements > FDA warns consumers not to use muscle growth product called Tri-Methyl Xtreme



FDA warns consumers not to use muscle growth product called Tri-Methyl Xtreme

Product marketed as a dietary supplement contains potentially harmful synthetic steroids  

For Immediate Release

April 13, 2015

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug administration is warning consumers to stop using a dietary supplement for muscle growth linked to serious liver injury.
Tri-Methyl Xtreme, distributed by Las Vegas-based Extreme Products Group, claims to contain anabolic steroids and is sold on the Internet and in some retail stores and gyms.
An investigation is underway by the FDA to identify the product’s manufacturer after the agency received adverse event reports from consumers—one each from California, New Jersey and Utah. The agency has not received reports of death from use of the product.
“Products marketed as supplements that contain anabolic steroids pose a real danger to consumers,” said Charles Lee, M.D., a senior medical advisor in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research’s Office of Compliance. “Anabolic steroids may have a range of serious adverse effects on many organ systems, and the damage may be irreversible.”
Liver injury is generally known to be a possible outcome of using products that contain synthetic anabolic steroids, and steroid-like substances.  In general, anabolic steroids may cause other serious long-term consequences, including adverse effects on cholesterol levels; increased risk of heart attack and stroke; masculinization of women; shrinkage of the testicles; breast enlargement; infertility in males; and short stature in children.
Consumers who suspect they are experiencing problems associated with Tri-Methyl Xtreme or other body building products should consult a health care professional, especially if they have experienced unexplained fatigue, abdominal or back pain, discolored urine or any other unexplained changes in their health.
Health care professionals and patients are encouraged to report adverse events or side effects related to the use of these products to the FDA's MedWatch Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program:
  • Complete and submit the report Online: www.fda.gov/MedWatch/report.htm
  • Download the form or call 1-800-332-1088 to request a reporting form, then complete and return to the address on the pre-addressed form, or submit by fax to 1-800-FDA-0178
The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation's food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.

Laron syndrome - Genetics Home Reference

Laron syndrome - Genetics Home Reference



Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions



Laron syndrome

What is Laron syndrome?

Laron syndrome is a rare form of short stature that results from the body's inability to use growth hormone, a substance produced by the brain's pituitary gland that helps promote growth. Affected individuals are close to normal size at birth, but they experience slow growth from early childhood that results in very short stature. If the condition is not treated, adult males typically reach a maximum height of about 4.5 feet; adult females may be just over 4 feet tall.
Other features of untreated Laron syndrome include reduced muscle strength and endurance, low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) in infancy, small genitals and delayed puberty, hair that is thin and fragile, and dental abnormalities. Many affected individuals have a distinctive facial appearance, including a protruding forehead, a sunken bridge of the nose (saddle nose), and a blue tint to the whites of the eyes (blue sclerae). Affected individuals have short limbs compared to the size of their torso, as well as small hands and feet. Adults with this condition tend to develop obesity. However, the signs and symptoms of Laron syndrome vary, even among affected members of the same family.
Studies suggest that people with Laron syndrome have a significantly reduced risk of cancer and type 2 diabetes. Affected individuals appear to develop these common diseases much less frequently than their unaffected relatives, despite having obesity (a risk factor for both cancer and type 2 diabetes). However, people with Laron syndrome do not seem to have an increased lifespan compared with their unaffected relatives.

How common is Laron syndrome?

Laron syndrome is a rare disorder. About 350 people have been diagnosed with the condition worldwide. The largest single group of affected individuals (about 100 people) lives in an area of southern Ecuador.

What genes are related to Laron syndrome?

Laron syndrome is caused by mutations in the GHR gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called the growth hormone receptor. The receptor is present on the outer membrane of cells throughout the body, particularly liver cells. As its name suggests, the growth hormone receptor attaches (binds) to growth hormone; the two proteins fit together like a key in a lock. When growth hormone is bound to its receptor, it triggers signaling that stimulates the growth and division of cells. This signaling also leads to the production, primarily by liver cells, of another important growth-promoting hormone called insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I).
Growth hormone and IGF-I have a wide variety of effects on the growth and function of many parts of the body. For example, these hormones stimulate the growth and division of cells called chondrocytes, which play a critical role in producing new bone tissue. Growth hormone and IGF-I also influence metabolism, including how the body uses and stores carbohydrates, proteins, and fats from food.
Mutations in the GHR gene impair the receptor's ability to bind to growth hormone or to trigger signaling within cells. As a result, even when growth hormone is available, cells are unable to respond by producing IGF-I and stimulating growth and division. The cells' inability to react to growth hormone, which is described as growth hormone insensitivity, disrupts the normal growth and function of many different tissues. Short stature results when growth hormone cannot adequately stimulate the growth of bones. Changes in metabolism caused by insensitivity to growth hormone and the resulting shortage of IGF-I cause many of the other features of the condition, including obesity.
Researchers are working to determine how mutations in the GHR gene may protect people with Laron syndrome from developing cancer and type 2 diabetes. Studies suggest that insensitivity to growth hormone may help prevent the uncontrolled growth and division of cells that can lead to the development of cancerous tumors. Growth hormone insensitivity also appears to alter how the body responds to insulin, which is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. Resistance to the effects of insulin is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. People with Laron syndrome have the opposite situation, an increased sensitivity to insulin, which likely helps explain their reduced risk of this common disease.
Read more about the GHR gene.

How do people inherit Laron syndrome?

Most cases of Laron syndrome are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the GHR gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
Much less commonly, the condition has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most of these cases, an affected person has one parent with the condition.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Laron syndrome?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of Laron syndrome and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of Laron syndrome in Educational resources and Patient support.
General information about the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests.
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about Laron syndrome?

You may find the following resources about Laron syndrome helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for Laron syndrome?

  • GH-R deficiency
  • growth hormone insensitivity syndrome
  • growth hormone receptor defect
  • growth hormone receptor deficiency
  • Laron dwarfism
  • Laron-type dwarfism
  • Laron-type isolated somatotropin defect
  • Laron-type pituitary dwarfism
  • Laron-type short stature
  • pituitary dwarfism II
  • primary GH resistance
  • primary growth hormone resistance
  • severe GH insensitivity
For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes named? in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about Laron syndrome?

Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?

What glossary definitions help with understanding Laron syndrome?

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
References (8 links)



The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook

Moyamoya disease - Genetics Home Reference

Moyamoya disease - Genetics Home Reference

Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions

Moyamoya disease





What is moyamoya disease?

Moyamoya disease is a disorder of blood vessels in the brain, specifically the internal carotid arteries and the arteries that branch from them. These vessels, which provide oxygen-rich blood to the brain, narrow over time. Narrowing of these vessels reduces blood flow in the brain. In an attempt to compensate, new networks of small, fragile blood vessels form. These networks, visualized by a particular test called an angiogram, resemble puffs of smoke, which is how the condition got its name: "moyamoya" is an expression meaning "something hazy like a puff of smoke" in Japanese.
Moyamoya disease commonly begins either around age 5 or in a person's thirties or forties. A lack of blood supply to the brain leads to several symptoms of the disorder, including temporary stroke-like episodes (transient ischemic attacks), strokes, and seizures. In addition, the fragile blood vessels that grow can develop bulges (aneurysms), or they can break open, leading to bleeding (hemorrhage) in the brain. Affected individuals may develop recurrent headaches, involuntary jerking movements (chorea), or a decline in thinking ability. The symptoms of moyamoya disease often worsen over time if the condition is not treated.
Some people have the blood vessel changes characteristic of moyamoya disease in addition to features of another disorder, such as neurofibromatosis type 1, sickle cell disease, or Graves disease. These individuals are said to have moyamoya syndrome.

How common is moyamoya disease?

Moyamoya disease was first identified in Japan, where it is most prevalent, affecting about 5 in 100,000 individuals. The condition is also relatively common in other Asian populations. It is ten times less common in Europe. In the United States, Asian Americans are four times more commonly affected than whites. For unknown reasons, moyamoya disease occurs twice as often in females as in males.

What genes are related to moyamoya disease?

The genetics of moyamoya disease are not well understood. Research suggests that the condition can be passed through families, and changes in one gene, RNF213, have been associated with the condition. Other genes that have not been identified may be involved in moyamoya disease. It is also likely that other factors (such as infection or inflammation) in combination with genetic factors play a role in the condition's development.
The RNF213 gene provides instructions for making a protein whose function is unknown. However, research suggests that the RNF213 protein is involved in the proper development of blood vessels.
Changes in the RNF213 gene involved in moyamoya disease replace single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the RNF213 protein. The effect of these changes on the function of the RNF213 protein is unknown, and researchers are unsure how the changes contribute to the narrowing of blood vessels or the characteristic blood vessel growth of moyamoya disease. For unknown reasons, people with moyamoya disease have elevated levels of proteins involved in cell and tissue growth, including the growth of blood vessels (angiogenesis). An excess of these proteins could account for the growth of new blood vessels characteristic of moyamoya disease. It is not clear if changes in the RNF213gene are involved in the overproduction of these proteins.
Read more about the RNF213 gene.

How do people inherit moyamoya disease?

Up to 15 percent of Japanese people with moyamoya disease have one or more family members with the condition, indicating that the condition can be passed through generations in families; however, the inheritance pattern is unknown. Research suggests that the condition follows an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. However, some people who have a copy of the altered gene never develop the condition, which is a situation known as reduced penetrance.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of moyamoya disease?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of moyamoya disease and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of moyamoya disease inEducational resources and Patient support.
General information about the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests.
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about moyamoya disease?

You may find the following resources about moyamoya disease helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for moyamoya disease?

  • cerebrovascular moyamoya disease
  • moya-moya disease
  • progressive intracranial arterial occlusion
  • progressive intracranial occlusive arteropathy
  • spontaneous occlusion of the Circle of Willis
For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes named? in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about moyamoya disease?

Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?

What glossary definitions help with understanding moyamoya disease?

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
References (8 links)



The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook

Globozoospermia - Genetics Home Reference

Globozoospermia - Genetics Home Reference

Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions





Globozoospermia

What is globozoospermia?

Globozoospermia is a condition that affects only males. It is characterized by abnormal sperm and leads to an inability to father biological children (infertility).
Normal sperm cells have an oval-shaped head with a cap-like covering called the acrosome. The acrosome contains enzymes that break down the outer membrane of an egg cell, allowing the sperm to fertilize the egg. The sperm cells of males with globozoospermia, however, have a round head and no acrosome. The abnormal sperm are unable to fertilize an egg cell, leading to infertility.

How common is globozoospermia?

Globozoospermia is a rare condition that is estimated to affect 1 in 65,000 men. It is most common in North Africa, where it accounts for approximately 1 in 100 cases of male infertility.

What genes are related to globozoospermia?

Globozoospermia is most commonly caused by mutations in the DPY19L2 gene, which are found in about 70 percent of men with this condition. Mutations in other genes likely also cause globozoospermia.
The DPY19L2 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is found in developing sperm cells. The DPY19L2 protein is involved in the development of the acrosome and elongation of the sperm head, which are integral steps in sperm cell maturation. Mutations in the DPY19L2 gene result in a loss of functional DPY19L2 protein. As a result, sperm cells have no acrosome and do not elongate properly. Without an acrosome, the abnormal sperm are unable to get through the outer membrane of an egg cell to fertilize it, leading to infertility in affected men. Researchers have described other characteristics of the abnormal sperm cells that make fertilization of an egg cell difficult, although it is not clear how changes in the DPY19L2 gene are involved in development of these characteristics.
Read more about the DPY19L2 gene.

How do people inherit globozoospermia?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of globozoospermia?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of globozoospermia and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of globozoospermia in Educational resources and Patient support.
General information about the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests.
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about globozoospermia?

You may find the following resources about globozoospermia helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for globozoospermia?

  • acrosome malformation of spermatozoa
  • round-headed spermatozoa
For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes named? in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about globozoospermia?

Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?

What glossary definitions help with understanding globozoospermia?

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
References (8 links)



The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook

Walking Boosts Outcomes for Prostate Cancer Survivors: MedlinePlus

Walking Boosts Outcomes for Prostate Cancer Survivors: MedlinePlus

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health






Walking Boosts Outcomes for Prostate Cancer Survivors

Study found real improvements in quality of life once men got active
By Robert Preidt
Thursday, April 16, 2015
HealthDay news image
THURSDAY, April 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Quality of life can deteriorate for men due to the effects of prostate cancer and its treatment. But a new study shows that engaging in a regular walking regimen can improve well-being.
The finding didn't come as a surprise to one expert.
"I am a big believer in exercise for overall wellness, and as this study has pointed out, for the management of prostate cancer," said Dr. Ash Tewari, chair of the department of urology at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City.
Tewari said his credo is " 'three miles a day keeps the doctor away,' and that is why I've created a 'Prostate Bootcamp' in my practice, which involves walking three miles per day."
In the new study, a team led by Siobhan Phillips of Northwestern University in Chicago tracked outcomes for more than 51,000 early stage prostate cancer survivors in the United States, who completed a survey about their quality of life.
Many of the men reported having urinary and bowel problems, erectile dysfunction and other sexual function problems, as well as weight gain, fatigue and depression.
The men also provided information about the average amount of time per week they spent walking, jogging, running, cycling, swimming and playing sports.
According to the study, three hours of "casual" walking per week boosted the men's health-related quality of life by reducing fatigue, depression and weight issues. Walking at a faster pace for 90 minutes a week provided similar benefits, the team found.
The findings were published April 16 in the Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice.
"This study shows that you don't have to engage in high-impact, vigorous activities to improve your quality of life after a prostate cancer diagnosis," Phillips, a kinesiologist and assistant professor of preventive medicine at Northwestern, said in a university news release.
"Since many prostate cancer survivors might find vigorous activities hard to stick with, the good news is that simply focusing on walking more may be enough to make them feel better," she added.
Tewari agreed. "Exercise, before and after prostate cancer treatment has the potential to speed recovery, mitigate complications, allow for optimal handling of medication, and impact long-term survival," he said. "In my practice, we have also seen facilitation of earlier recovery of sexual function."
Dr. Manish Vira directs the fellowship program in urologic oncology at The Arthur Smith Institute for Urology in New Hyde Park, N.Y. He said the new study "highlights the value of cancer survivorship programs which focus on increasing physical activity and exercise."
So, he added, "it is important to emphasize to patients that even modest, low-impact activity can have very positive effects not only on overall health but also on patients' perception of their quality of life."
Exercise has many other positive effects, Phillips noted.
"Cancer survivors have a higher risk of other conditions, such as cardiovascular disease," she said. "Walking may also potentially increase survival and impact their quality of life by preventing the onset of those other conditions."
SOURCES: Ash Tewari, M.D., chair, department of urology, Mount Sinai Health System, New York City; Manish A. Vira, M.D., director, fellowship program in urologic oncology, The Arthur Smith Institute for Urology, New Hyde Park, N.Y.; Northwestern University, news release, April 16, 2015
HealthDay
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E-Cigarette Use Triples Among U.S. Teens in 1 Year: MedlinePlus

E-Cigarette Use Triples Among U.S. Teens in 1 Year: MedlinePlus

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health








E-Cigarette Use Triples Among U.S. Teens in 1 Year

Federal health officials say the nicotine-based products pose major health threat to kids
Thursday, April 16, 2015
HealthDay news image
Related MedlinePlus Pages
THURSDAY, April 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- E-cigarettes are booming among U.S. teens, with nearly 2.5 million middle and high school students now choosing to "vape" rather than smoke traditional cigarettes or indulge in other forms of tobacco, federal health officials reported Thursday.
E-cigarette use among middle and high school students tripled from 2013 to 2014, making the nicotine-delivery devices the most popular tobacco product now used by American teens, according to data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey.
This is the first time e-cigs have surpassed in teen popularity every other tobacco product, a trend that CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden called "deeply alarming."
"We're seeing a striking increase. It's very concerning," Frieden said during a media briefing. "It more than counterbalances the decrease in cigarette smoking which we've seen over the last few years."
There has been no decline in overall tobacco use among teens, so it appears that newer products like e-cigarettes and hookahs are offsetting traditional products like cigarettes, cigars and smokeless tobacco, the CDC reported in its April 17 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Marketing spent for e-cigarettes tripled each year between 2011 and 2013, as tobacco companies bought up leading e-cigarette companies and shifted their attention to the new product, Frieden said.
He described the marketing as "Mad Men comes to e-cigarettes," with companies plying teens with free samples and offering products with fruit and candy flavors.
"It's straight out of the playbook of what was done for cigarettes in the 1950s," Frieden said. "We need to stop before another generation gets hooked on nicotine."
E-cigarettes are battery-operated devices that use heat to transform liquid chemicals into a vapor that is inhaled by the user. E-cigarette liquid very often contains nicotine, as well as many different types of flavors.
Overall rates of any tobacco product use were 24.6 percent for high school students and 7.7 percent for middle school students in 2014, the CDC found. That amounts to 4.6 million middle and high school students, and represents an increase of 400,000 kids from the prior year, Frieden said.
The news of e-cigarettes' growing popularity comes as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is finalizing rules that would bring e-cigarettes and hookahs -- water pipes -- under their tobacco control authority.
A number of states have either passed or are considering laws establishing a minimum age for purchase of e-cigarettes or extending smoke-free laws to include e-cigarettes, both of which could help further prevent youth use and initiation, the CDC said in a news release.
The 2012 Surgeon General's Report found that about 90 percent of all smokers first tried cigarettes as teens, and that about three of every four teen smokers continue into adulthood.
According to the new CDC survey, e-cigarette use among high school students increased from 4.5 percent in 2013 to 13.4 percent in 2014, rising from approximately 660,000 to 2 million students.
Among middle school students, e-cigarette use more than tripled from 1.1 percent in 2013 to 3.9 percent in 2014, an increase from approximately 120,000 to 450,000 students.
Hookahs also have grown in popularity, the CDC found. Hookah smoking roughly doubled for teens, rising from about 890,000 middle and high school students in 2013 to nearly 1.6 million in 2014.
E-cigarettes and hookahs can lead to nicotine addiction, and there's concern that kids who use e-cigarettes will graduate to traditional cigarettes. In addition, nicotine can cause serious damage to the developing brains of teens, Frieden said.
"Smoking cigarettes during adolescence has been associated with lasting cognitive impairments, including memory and attention," he said.
Cigarette smoking among high school students decreased from 15.8 percent to 9.2 percent between 2011 and 2014, and cigar smoking decreased from 11.6 percent to 8.2 percent.
Use of multiple tobacco products was common. Nearly half of all middle and high school students who were current tobacco users used two or more types of tobacco products.
In 2014, the tobacco products most commonly used by high school students were e-cigarettes (13.4 percent), hookah (9.4 percent), cigarettes (9.2 percent), cigars (8.2 percent), smokeless tobacco (5.5 percent), snus (1.9 percent) and pipes (1.5 percent).
The National Youth Tobacco Survey is a school-based, self-administered questionnaire given annually to middle and high school students in both public and private schools. The 2014 survey included a nationally representative sample of 22,000 students.
SOURCES: April 16, 2015, media briefing, Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H., director, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; April 17, 2015, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
HealthDay
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